Free Ebook: A Layman’s Commentary On Genesis

This is a compilation of 50, one-page summaries/opinions on each chapter of Genesis. It is based on my blogs on Genesis and includes some original art work as well.

Download it here:

or read it online here:

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Genesis 36: Edom, the Land of Esau

Edom is the land southeast of the Dead Sea. Edom means red and may have come from Esau’s selling of his birthright for red soup or it could have come from the red limestone hills of Edom. Edom was populated by the Horites before he moved there and he eventually assimilated and displaced them. His genealogy is presented here to possibly show that his children were not the promised lineage line leading to Jesus. Edom had chiefs, dukes and kings. Eventually Edom produced the Idumaen (in Greek) line of Herods.

What happened to the Edomites? They persecuted and fought against Israel. Eventually they were absorbed by the middle eastern countries and disappeared as a cultural identity.

Esau possessed his land in his lifetime but his posterity would die out, Jacob would never see the fulfillment of his promise which was long in coming but resulted in the coming of the Messiah and the adoption of the Gentiles into a world-wide family.

God fulfills his promises but in timelines that no single human can anticipate or experience themselves. The only way I will ever be able to fully appreciate Gods master planning and redemption of the world is to participate through Jesus Christ as the apostle John tells us. If I am a child of promise, I will inherit His kingdom. If I am not a child of promise, I will die out to history just as Esau’s descendants did.

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Self Balancing Gyroscope Two Wheeler

Free Ebook: here is my free ebook describing how to construct this two wheeler. Includes problems, solutions, suggestions, photos and code.

Self balancing gyroscope two wheeler

Here is my latest self balancing vehicle – it is an inline two wheeler using a mechanical gyroscope with active servo control of the gimbal. Took me a long time to get here but very satisfied that it works considering the haphazard construction techniques.

Weight of gyro rotor to Weight of vehicle is: .358g / 1.8 kg = 19.9% at 4000 rpm. It can be a little less than this before vehicle falls over.

Here is a link to an excellent document to explain how to self balance a vehicle with a mechanical gyroscope by Mori, Hiroshi :

Update April 7: Was driving the gyrocar today and noticed, it falls on sharp left turns (gyroscope spins to the left) but ALSO falls making turns in reverse to the right. It is fine on forward right turns and backward left turns. Interesting but not surprising.

Also I think I am at the limit of balance and really need a larger rotor for more vehicle balance control. I can also try increasing program parameters for operation at high rpm to correct imbalance. Am trying to find a machinest for a new rotor with twice the mass (360 to 720 grams) but don’t know when that will happen so am trying to improve operation programmatically.

The nice thing is that I can now balance at 3000 rpm with the electronic gimbal controls but with the controls turned off, it will not balance at all. So I do have some control. Wish I could figure out a better algorithm than the sector programming I am currently using as it seems limiting.

Update April 4: I measured the minimum rpm to balance the vehicle and using online calculator, I determined the following:

360 gram rotor @ 2000 rpm = 580 grams of torque = 580g/2000g (wt of vehicle) = 29% (fails to balance)

360 gram rotor @ 2700rpm = 785 grams of torque = 785/2000g = 39% (balances)

So, it takes about at 40% ratio to balance a vehicle

Update Mar 28: The biggest problem with single rotor gyroscopic vehicles – turning. I wondered why the vehicle turns so nice and sharp to the right but will fall over if I turn very quickly to the left and I think I have figured it out. If you turn in the same direction as the precession ( which in this case is to the left since the gyroscope is spinning to the left or counter-clockwise) and you turn faster than the precession rate then the gyroscope will fall over. So, how to prevent that?

  1. You can prevent it by turning the entire gyroscope to the left at the same speed as you make the turn and then there will be no loss of precession. But this is a lot of work as it means you need another gimbal on the gyroscope and a control mechanism to turn the gimbal when steering to the left. I was going to do this one and had built a bearing into the gyroscope frame but the bearing weighed so much that my vehicle would not balance well. Will come back to this when I get a larger rotor.
  2. Another way to cope with it is to speed up the rpm of the gyroscope rotor. But that requires hooking your gyroscope rotor up to the microprocessor – a lot of work and it probably still wont work as you cannot increase the rpm very quickly.
  3. I’m not sure this way will help but you might tilt the rotor forward during a left turn to roll the vehicle to compensate for the turn. I will try this method first.

Update Mar 25: rebuilt gyro vehicle on new chassis but didn’t balance very well – oscillating terribly. So took off 400 gram circular bearing and still does not balance well. Two potential problems: 1. Using soft wheels that are slightly flat creates a side force. But don’t think that is it. 2. Lowering the axis of the gimbal too low robs the gyro of power for side to side torque. Like an inverted pendulum, it needs to be higher to exert less force to balance but not too high. Too low takes more torque to correct imbalance. Too low = less force required but higher speed. Too high = more force but less speed to correct. So need a balance between the two. Guess I have to raise the gyro until I can get a heavier gyro rotor. NOTE: took care of this by changing program parms.

On the note of the gyro material: steel is 2.5 times as dense as aluminum, and brass is 2 to 3 times as dense as aluminum. Aluminum is poor choice for rotor unless you don’t care how big the dimensions are.

Update Mar 20: Built new chassis and added gyro to it – worked but very rough balance. Then discovered that by lowering powerTime variable then it smooths out corrections fantastically. Went from value of 50 to 5. Now nice and smooth corrections. This makes sense as I lowered the CG of the gyro and therefore it requires less corrective force. At 50 I was over-correcting.

Calculated that 16% rotor to total weight is minimum I can balance with.

Todo: 1. add servo to move gimbal bearing.

2. add steering gear.

Update Mar 18: New frame with circular bearing so that I can turn the gyroscope when the vehicle turns.

New chassis incorporating rotating bearing for gyro to be used during turns of vehicle.

Update Feb 28: put batteries and steering gear on new chassis, and had to retune parameters to get it balancing again. Then made following vide. Left and right turns. Now need to wait on getting final parts to build final version where I will turn the gyroscope with the steering to make turns better.

Update Feb 27: rebuilt the chassis to lower the center of mass closer to ground. It runs very smoothly even at low 3300 rpm. The lower the COM and lighter you can make the gyro vehicle has a huge effect on its performance.

Update Feb 26: build stilts to raise gyro platform from 10cm to floor, to 40cm to floor. Will not balance now even at 10,000 rpm. Makes sense as it acts like a long lever when falling over and this gives greater torque to gyroscope. Therefore it would require much larger rotor and/or higher rpm to counteract falling induced torque. So, the lower the CG of the gyro, the better. I plan to rebuild the chassis to lower the motor where it almost touches the ground – control should be even easier.

Update Feb 22: added a potentiometer to the steering servo to know when I turn so as to move balance point during turns to keep rotor balanced. First I added a wire to the steering servo potentiometer wiper and ran it and a ground to the Arduino but for some unknown reason it occassionally caused the servo to do erratic behavior so had to resort to an external pot that I stole from a standard servo and it works great. Now when it detects a turn I move the balance point forward or backward by 50 to keep the rotor balanced. Not perfect but much better than without it.

Next, take video of using the steering servo pot. Then a video of driving it with sharp left and right turns. Then try 540 sized motor to reduce voltage requirements. Will at some point need a 2000mah lipo as the 800mah runs dry in 5 minutes.

Self Balancing Gyrocar Steering Potentiometer Servo Linkage
potentiometer attached to steering servo

Update Feb 21: Added machine learning code to program to randomly choose some variable values in the program and measure the error over 100 cycles and keep the variable values that result in the least amount of error (balance point – actual gimbal angle). Works good.

Also added a wire to the steering servo to feed the angle of the servo to the Arduino and if a left or right turn then moves the balance point a corresponding amount to restore balance. Need to work some more on this as it rotor falls when quickly going back to neutral point.

Update Feb 17: Part 3.1 video: driving around. Good right turns, left turn is limited by mechanism that needs some work. Exponential moving average smoothing has really made the gyro stable. Replaced powered wheel AA batteries with 3s lipo battery and adjustable LM317 power supply. Now have lots of power. Also using two 3s lipos for Arduino Uno and to power gyroscope motor.

Update Feb 15: Plotting angle reading of gyro gimbal on serial plotter and it shows little spikes that I think may be due to sloppy gear linkage. Also used Exponential Moving Average smoothing routine that works well to get rid of spikes. Will make a new gear/motor mount at some point to see if spikes go away. Gyro balances nicely even at low 4000 rpm (6volts).

Plot should be sine wave but it goes up, comes back to center then down then back up. Not sure what is happening there but pretty erratic.

Got steering working by adding a standard servo. Will post video when I get vpn back.

Here is screen print of smoothing plot:

Using moving average smoothing of gyroscope potentiometer angle readings.

Update Feb 14,2020: Now balancing pretty well at 8000 to 10000 rpm. Even balances at 4000 rpm but wobbles quite a bit. Replaced wheels and front wheel is motorized and took video of going forward and backward. Unfortunately the AA batteries got depleted very quickly. So have ordered a rechargable lipo battery. Have added a standard servo to be used for steering.

Want to try a CG self-correcting routine to find optimum CG. Algorithm: for CG from 350 to 400; measure error for 1000 cycles; divide total result by 1000; keep lowest error.

Part 2 video: added powered wheel and rear wheel.

Video of first successful balancing (Part 1):


  • Arduino Uno
  • machined aluminum rotor , 360 grams, 10cm by 1.5cm
  • 550 12volt 18000(no load) dc motor
  • 370 motor for servo
  • P3022 non-contact potentiometer (required for no friction and precision values)
  • yellow geared 110 rpm motor for mobility
  • L298N motor driver (must have heatsink)
Posted in machine learning, Mechanical Gyroscopes, robots | Tagged , , | 6 Comments

Self Balancing Robot

I built this simple robot a few years back and it balanced fairly well but became a little erratic after awhile so decided to replace the mini L298 motor driver with a bigger L298 and it works a lot better. I haven’t implemented any directional control yet and may do that some day but am happy to just turn it on now and then and let it balance. It balances quite well without wandering too far and on a smooth and hard surface as well. I have even used a Neural Net algorithm to get it balancing which works quite well and does not require any tuning like the PID routine.

Here is a link to how to build it and the code for the neural net version.

I have the regular PID code available if anyone wishes to have it.

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Why a cross?

Jesus could have died many ways but why did God use the cross? Does the cross symbol have special meaning to God? Christ could have been beaten to death, killed with a sword, hung, burned on a stake, thrown to lions, starved to death, exiled to the desert, drowned, torn apart by horses, or a myriad of other gruesome methods. I think God used the cross because it would become arguably the most easily and recognizable symbol that followers of Christ could have. I can hardly recognize any other religious symbol other than the yin-yang of Daoism. Islam uses the star and moon which is really an ancient poly-theistic symbol – in other words, they don’t even have anything representative of Allah or Muhammad. The star of David is representative of the Jews but God did not choose it. And there aren’t any religious icons representative of a god’s love and sacrifice for men except for the cross. I grew up in a very fundamentalist group that looked down on wearing crosses but over the years I have come to see that wearing a cross is a statement to remind ourselves, and to tell others, who we are.

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Jesus Painting

I don’t believe Jesus looked like the GQ boys that he is often portrayed. He probably had relatively short hair, a beard (especially after he came back from his ordeal in the desert unless he carried a shaver with him), and if prophecy carries any weight, he was not a beautiful man. My portrait is probably more accurate than most – not because of any inside knowledge but because of common-sense. Perhaps it is fortunate that we do not have any images of Christ in existence – it allows all of our internal pictures to be as accurate as the next. Christ is our savior – not a celebrity, after all a celebrity makes their living by being a fake.

This raises an interesting question: are the emotions invoked by a painting of Christ real? Is there any value to those emotions? After all, we cannot have a mental picture of God who is a spirit yet our emotional response to Him must be of some use. I don’t know. When I imagine a scene of Jesus from the Bible I think of him like Ted Neeley in Jesus Christ Superstar – and I hate that image because it is so inaccurate. Jesus was not a white, long-haired American. He was middle-Eastern Jewish, through and through.

I do believe that we will not be held accountable for our inaccurate portrayal of Jesus but I think I should at least modify our mental picture of him to something reasonable.

Posted in acrylic painting, art work, artwork, Christianity, god, Jesus Christ, Judaism, religion, son of God, sprituality, theology | Tagged | Leave a comment

Crucifixion 1 Painting

The Tomb Awaits

There is a myth that Jesus was crucified over the tomb of Adam and that his blood ran through a hole in the mountain into the tomb to cover the skull of Adam and thus rescue men from death. It is a nice story that, while it has no basis in fact, does prove true spiritually. My little painting shows the sun blackened with darkness and casting long shadows of death over the mountain. The tomb is covered by a stone that symbolizes the light of the Son soon to be shone upon the world. The doorway of life is soon to open for all men.

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