Exodus 2: The Beginning of Moses, a Type of Christ

Moses was born of Levite parents. Because of the Pharaoh’s command to kill all Hebrew new born males, his mother hid him for three months and then had his sister place him in a floating ark in the Nile river. His sister, Miriam, watched over him until he was discovered by the Pharoah’s daughter who had Moses own mother, Jochebed, nurse him at the suggestion of Miriam. He was then raised and educated in the royal court.

When he was grown, he observed an Egyptian beating a Hebrew and he killed the Egyptian. He was found out by the Pharaoh and ran away to Midian where he rescued some girls from some shepherds and took refuge with Reuel and then married his daughter, Zipporah with whom he had a son, Gershom.

Meanwhile, back in Egypt, the Pharaoh had died. But the new one was no better and the Hebrews were suffering and called out to God for rescue. And God decided to act.


So many parallels with Christ already: Moses was born of Levites who would become a priestly tribe, adopted by a virgin princess, rejected by his own people, rejected his privileged lifestyle to be with his own people and became a shepherd.

At some point in his growing up, he made a decision to serve the Hebrew God. He was privy to the doctrines of the Egyptian multiplicity of gods and the monotheism of the Hebrews and he made his choice – just as all men are called to make a choice between atheism, gods and God today.

Midian is on the right side of the right finger of the Red sea and is about 700 miles from Goshen. The question is, was Moses fleeing from Goshen or the capital of Egypt, T…..?

Manetho, a 3rd century BC Egyptian historian tells the story differently, that Moses was in fact an Egyptian priest who led a rebellion against the many-god Egyptians to a montheistic belief group. Of course, once one starts disbelieving one story of the Bible, then whats to stop them from disbelieving all of them – the Bible then becomes just a book of myths – and God just one of many.

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Exodus 1: An Unknown King of Egypt

The generation of Joseph and his brothers passes away but their descendants grew in number to perhaps millions. A new king of Egypt who did not know Joseph feared their numbers and decided to put them into slavery. He told the midwives to the Hebrews to kill the male children. Yet the midwives refused and God blessed them. The king was not a happy person.


Joseph’s generation leaves the scene but a new one carries on. God will remember us even if time erases the history of our presence. Only God’s work is truly memorable but we should be content with our small role. Christ is our focal point.

We are not totally sure who this king was or where he came from. He may have just been a new family or an outsider. But before I suggest this king’s name, lets look at some of the kings who may have been the Pharaoh during the Exodus which happens a few chapters later:

Ramses II (1279 – 1213) and Exodus date of 1250 BC.

King Tutankhamun (Tut) around 1330 BC.

Thutmoses III (1485 – 1431) and Exodus date of 1446 BC. (My vote,)

No Pharaoh – the idea that the Exodus is a myth and that it never happened – the favorite of atheistic and anti-Biblical archeologists.

Others – Nepherhotep, Menkaure, Thutmose II, Ahmenhotep II

We may never know his true name and perhaps that provides an ironic and just twist to the story. The Egyptians it seems believed that if your image and memory was erased, your soul would be erased as well. Did God not want the Pharoah’s name known so that, in Egyptian terms, his soul would be lost too? But, I am getting ahead of the story.

My favorite Pharaoh who would have been the King of Egypt while Moses grew up there would be Thutmoses II. Appropriate that Moses’s name would have even been taken from his adoptive father.

The Hebrews living at Goshen were growing into the millions and this threatened the Egyptian king and so he came up with the idea of killing the Hebrew new born males, conspiring with the midwives. Now these midwives may have been Hebrew or Egyptian, probably Egyptian. And they could have numbered in the hundreds but the story deals with only two, perhaps the leaders of the midwives, Shiphrah and Puah (their names are remembered) – only two midwives could not have managed hundreds of thousands of births on their own. When they were questioned by the King as to why the baby boys survived, they replied that the Hebrew women were tough and gave birth before the midwives could arrive.

Whoever the midwives were, God blessed them as He blesses us when we stand up to the Pharaohs of the world.

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Illumination – A Scifi Short Story

The following is a short story about a man who is seeking healing and the nature of God. Hope you like it.


The doctor was kind but how can a prognosis of months of life remaining be accepted kindly. Jason felt an instant despair that was quickly turning to anger at the hand life had dealt him. He was young and worked out religiously. He had a family to take care of. He was respected by his colleagues and friends. His work as a university assistant-professor was satisfying and his students loved him. Yet, here he was – on his way to a dirt-nap.

“Is there nothing that can be done Doctor? A specialist, a miracle drug? I’ll even go to Mexico or China if I have to.”

“No Jason. You’ll just be chasing ghosts and wasting your final precious time that could be spent with your family and friends.”

“Doctor, I can’t abandon my family if there is any possible chance of successful treatment to found anywhere, no matter how remote the chance of success. I have to try.”

Desperation was contagious and even the doctor felt compelled to try any treatment no matter how foolhardy or futile. He decided to refer Jason to an unorthodox practitioner who was on the fringe of the medical sector – Doctor Phillips.


The address he had been given had brought him to a private manor on the outskirts of a small city in an European country known more for its tales of rapacious blood suckers. The mountain setting was peaceful and implanted a sense of protection from the dangers of the world. An attendant took Jason’s bags and directed him to a spartan but clean and comfortable room displaying a prominent empty cross above the bed.

He met the doctor in the library, a two-story affair lined with colorful rows of books. The doctor rose from his chair, took Jason’s hand and directed him to a sofa near the fireplace.

“Doctor, I am so grateful that you would see me. Do you believe you can help me?”

“Jason, I can make no promises. First, let me explain what we do here and then you can decide if this treatment if for you. We are a private affair not subject to official direct medical oversight. In fact the establishment accuses our facility of being strictly homeopathic in nature and therapeutically ineffective. That is a nice way of putting it and the more common term bandied about is charlatan or swindler. So, I do not want to raise your hopes above the threshold of sensibility. However, we have had our successes and we do firmly believe in the efficacy of our practices.”

“In detail then. You have no doubt heard of Nikola Tesla, the scientist, physicist, inventor. Well, one of the experimental phenomenon he investigated was communication with spirits via a special circuit he designed known as a spirit radio. Though he thought it was capturing the voices of aliens and even Edison thought it was a device for communicating with the dead, we have modified it, or rather an alternative version known as the Lakhovsky Multiwave Oscillator, to heal the broken body. It is based on the concept that frequencies in the magnetic spectrum resonate with the body and provide a curative effect that cannot be supplied with conventional chemical remedies. Our theory though is based not on a purely mechanistic worldview though. We base our beliefs and practices on the concept of God as a being or rather the Supreme Being of light. I know you will have many questions but bear with me for a few more moments.”

“Light is electromagnetic radiation in the 430 to 750 terahertz spectrum and includes various frequencies such as ultraviolet and infrared. Our custom designed circuits and antennas translate these various frequencies into electrostatic currents that are then applied to the body and brain which have a palliative force and effect. That is a simplistic explanation of the contraption or device. But what I want to delve into is the theoretical basis for light being the analogy or metaphor used in the Bible to describe God, Jesus the mystical miracle worker and his followers who are described as those who live in the light. I believe that light is used not just as a metaphor but as an actual explanatory device. For instance, relatively low frequency radio waves pass right through the body unencumbered. High energy neutrinos do the same. These particles exist in an almost spiritual world unaffected by our world. Now we assume there are other properties of light that we have not even explored yet that more closely align with the nature of God. Perhaps we will be privy to their details one day but regardless, we believe we are tapping into those properties with our devices. Think about how explanatory this theory is for some unexplained phenomenon like NDEs, near death experiences, where beings and doors of light are encountered. And the weirdness of quantum particles that instantly react to changes in one or the other of a pair no matter the distance of separation. There are not even good scientific principals to explain these apparent miraculous phenomenon today. What about the concept of hell – a place with an absence of light and whose leader must pose as an “angel of light” to deceive humans?”

“If God’s spirit resides in men then we are in fact beings of or with light like the stars that differ in nature from one another. God even has unique names for each star and we are like the stars with our each unique perspectives and we live and die like the stars.”

“What I am trying to convey is that there seems to be characteristics and properties of light that we do not yet understand but when applied to the body seem to have a compelling and positive effect. And that is what we do here. Scientifically administered but theoretically obscure.”

Jason sat for a few moments in contemplative silence and then told the doctor what he was feeling, “First, I hope I do not have to accept in faith a belief in God because I cannot get over my mechanistic view of the world – I cannot make that leap – you haven’t convinced me yet Doctor. Second, this is a lot of information to absorb and I need time to take it in but time is an extravagance I do not possess.”

The doctor replied, “Fortunately you do not have to be a believer to undergo the treatment Jason. As you Yanks like to say, the proof is in the cake. If you consent, we will begin post haste.”


The therapy chamber was quite small with walls blanketed with white sound proof foam pyramids, deeply carpeted floor, and a recliner chair on an elevated pedestal facing a large blank screen. Jason was seated in the recliner and an assistant attached various sensors to his arms, legs and mounted a bicycle style helmet sporting padded earphones and two coiled wire antennas.

“Jason, we will begin now. Please observe the screen images in a relaxed state.”

Soon ethereal music floated out of headphone speakers and the screen lit up with abstract movements of colored light and shapes. He lost track of how much time he sat in that chair but the experience was quite pleasant. Before he even realized it, the first day’s treatment was concluded. Jason spoke briefly with the doctor, had a light supper, returned to his room and slept easily through the night.

In the succeeding days, the routine never changed and Jason found himself looking forward to the established regime. He floated in another realm, listening to disembodied and incoherent voices and celestial moans and strains of ethereal music. It was angelic. And he felt better and better over time. The pain and discomfort of his affliction melted imperceptibly away and Jason just wanted to stay in the chair and live in this virtual and stimulating world. In fact it was with regret and longing that he returned to reality and he fell into a depression whenever he went back to his room.

The final day of his treatment he had a unique experience. Always the voices had been unintelligible but this time a clear voice had emerged from the cacophony, “You cannot stay.” And then the voices and music stopped.

Jason sat for a while in a stupor, not sure what to do. Then he slowly removed the helmet and left the room. He met with the doctor and briefed him on the results of this session. The doctor asked Jason, “So what will you do now Jason? There is no evidence of your illness. You are feeling physically rejuvenated, aside from some residual psychological regret that will dissipate over time – I promise you.”

He replied to the doctor, “Shine, Doc, I am going to shine.”


As the doctor and his assistant were watching the taxi bearing Jason to the airport drive away from the facility, the assistant said, “ Doctor, so you think it is ethical that we are responsible for terminating the sessions? Isn’t our deception creating a moral dilemma?”

The doctor replied, “No. The placebo effect is often more powerful than a pharmacological remedy and I have no reservations when it comes to securing the welfare of our clients at any cost.”

The assistant persisted with his doubts, “But isn’t it a sin to lie to them?”

The doctor placed his hand on the assistant’s shoulder and said, “My friend, sometimes we must bear a sin to pay for another’s blessing.

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Free Ebook: A Layman’s Commentary On Genesis

This is a compilation of 50, one-page summaries/opinions on each chapter of Genesis. It is based on my blogs on Genesis and includes some original art work as well.

Download it here:

or read it online here:

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Genesis 36: Edom, the Land of Esau

Edom is the land southeast of the Dead Sea. Edom means red and may have come from Esau’s selling of his birthright for red soup or it could have come from the red limestone hills of Edom. Edom was populated by the Horites before he moved there and he eventually assimilated and displaced them. His genealogy is presented here to possibly show that his children were not the promised lineage line leading to Jesus. Edom had chiefs, dukes and kings. Eventually Edom produced the Idumaen (in Greek) line of Herods.

What happened to the Edomites? They persecuted and fought against Israel. Eventually they were absorbed by the middle eastern countries and disappeared as a cultural identity.

Esau possessed his land in his lifetime but his posterity would die out, Jacob would never see the fulfillment of his promise which was long in coming but resulted in the coming of the Messiah and the adoption of the Gentiles into a world-wide family.

God fulfills his promises but in timelines that no single human can anticipate or experience themselves. The only way I will ever be able to fully appreciate Gods master planning and redemption of the world is to participate through Jesus Christ as the apostle John tells us. If I am a child of promise, I will inherit His kingdom. If I am not a child of promise, I will die out to history just as Esau’s descendants did.

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Self Balancing Gyroscope Two Wheeler

Free Ebook: here is my free ebook describing how to construct this two wheeler. Includes problems, solutions, suggestions, photos, and code.

This latest 2.6 version includes Chapter 10 on my latest version #4 vehicle with horizontal axis rotor that is starting to work pretty well.

Spreadsheet to calculate gyroscope vehicle parms: (NOTE: you can only view this spreadsheet but the formulas are shown at the bottom so you can create your own.)

Newest version #4 – have decided to go with this rotor orientation as it allows left and right turns.
Version #2 with new chassis, fork style steering which gets rid of balancing problems caused by turning. 3 lipo batteries – one for Arduino and gimbal motor , one for gyro rotor motor and one for RC receiver and powered rear wheel.

Self Balancing Gyroscope Two Wheeler with new 720gram rotor (version #3)

Here is my latest self balancing vehicle – it is an inline two wheeler using a mechanical gyroscope with active servo control of the gimbal. Took me a long time to get here but very satisfied that it works considering the haphazard construction techniques.

Weight of gyro rotor to Weight of vehicle is: .358g / 1.8 kg = 19.9% at 4000 rpm. It can be a little less than this before vehicle falls over. NOTE: now upgraded to 700 gram rotor, 100mm by 30mm.

Here is a link to an excellent document to explain how to build a self balance a vehicle with a mechanical gyroscope by Mori, Hiroshi : https://thebbb.net/free/theories-and-experiments-for-gyro-monorails.pdf


Latest vehicle Version #4 with horizontal axis rotor – allows left and right vehicle turns.
Latest Version #4 doing left and right turns and radio control integrated with Arduino.

Update Aug 2: I measured the ampere draw of various motors for the gimbal control:

Motor size stall amp (held shaft) no load amp draw 280 .20 .01 too small 370 .22 .01 barely works 380 1.87 1.0 won’t work 385 .7 ?? works 390 1.33 .18 haven’t tried it 550 1.87 .86 wont work with L298N

Now will order A4950 motor driver to see if the added voltage and amps will make gimbal motor more effective. Also will test 550 motor with it as I really want a more powerful gimbal motor.

Update Jul 30: Decided to integrate radio controls directly into Arduino. The added benefit of doing this is that I do not need wheel encoders to see if the vehicle is moving forward or backward or if it is turning. Now will work on programming to see if I can turn the rotor during vehicle turns so it can turn faster. But if I stopped now I have basically succeeded in my goals.

Update Jul 29: Was “driving” my gyro vehicle and noticed interesting behavior – if I turn slowly during forward or backward motion, the gimbal motor is able to keep up and adjust the balance of the gyroscope to keep the vehicle balanced. But if I turn quickly, the gyroscope wants to stay in the same orientation but because the vehicle is turning, it applies a torque to the gyroscope and therefore might fall over; the gimbal motor cannot make an adjustment in time. So this is why the GyroX car turns the gyroscope when the vehicle turns – to keep the gyroscope oriented with the direction of the car. What this means is that I need two additional sensors – a potentiometer attached to the steering to sense when the vehicle is turning and a wheel encoder (or two) attached to one of the wheels to know if the vehicle is in forward or backward motion. This is what happens when you keep developing a self-balancing vehicle – it just keeps getting more and more complex to account for different forces acting on the gyroscope. This is probably why the Lit Motors Inc., C-1 self balancing motorcycle failed – they had over 30 sensors on their machine – a logistical and programming nightmare.

Update Jul 27: Installed new 385 gimbal motor. Has twice the torque of the 370 and works much better as it restores from disturbance better. Need to tune it some more. Will try using pulleys next to see if it smooths out linkage.

Update Jul 25: Decided to try LQR type of algorithm and it really, really smooths out the gyroscope. Still oscillates from side to side but does it less than with the IF-THEN conditional statements I was using. Like a PID but easier to implement.

P = (.08 * gimbalError) + (.5 * velP); // fraction of error and velocity of gimbal
powerTime = 30 * sq(P); // gradual curve up
delayValue = P * 10; // need formula as should curve down

Cool! Waiting on new more powerful gimbal motors as this 370 is maxed out when the rotor gets far away from setpoint.

Update Jul 22: Waiting on parts to convert geared gimbal to belt and pulley drive. Here is photo of new 5 mm axle (on the right) I had to install on gimbal to hold the large pulley. I epoxied the axle into the aluminum right angle piece. Love epoxy, use it for everything.

Gimbal motor is still under-powered but I figured out how to double the 370 motor power. That will be my next project after I finish installing the belt and pulley gimbal drive.

Update Jul 14: With the new orientation it does turn right and left now but still sometimes falls over: just realized a problem with Arduino microprocessor – if the gimbal motor is on for 50 milliseconds but the rotor has passed the zero or set-point – it has no way to turn off until the 50 millisecond cycle is finished and then it has to correct itself in the other direction. In other words, the gimbal will always be oscillating around the set-point because it has no way to shut off the motorPower cycle mid-cycle. So more programming required.

Second thing I realized: as the rotor gets farther away from the zero or setpoint, the motor needs more power to make a correction and since it is at full power it has to run longer (500 milliseconds). But this 370 motor just does not have the torque to make a quick correction so really need a bigger gimbal motor – the problem is that bigger motors have more cogging and this resistance or friction will cause the gyro to fall over. So two big problems to take care of: programming and search for bigger motor.

Next step: going to go with pulleys instead of gears to control gimbal. Much simpler and won’t run into torque changes caused by extreme angles on the gear/lever linkage. When gimbal is at its extreme angles, it loses balance quickly and the levers don’t have a lot of force. Found some 6:1 ratio pulleys that should work great.

Update Jul 11: Decided to play with it some more and go with #4 version (see picture below) with horizontal axis rotor as that is the only one that will allow left and right turns. I am getting it to stay balanced now and will play with program to increase speed of the algorithm. Gyro is same top-heavy (now side heavy) as last working with version #3 and vertical rotor axis. Just needs more dramatic correction if out of balance and definitely keep it away from extreme out of balance angles.

Update Jul 4: I have decided to stop working on self-balancing gyroscopes – six years is long enough, I have discovered the host of problems you must contend with, that the levels of complexity have no end and I feel that at my age of 66 years, I have more important things to spend my time on. It was fun, interesting, both satisfying and frustrating. I will continue to work on bettering the gimbal servo mechanism because that still interests me and I will document another chapter in my pdf book on the subject of gimbal orientation and then I will mostly escape this rabbit hole to perhaps find another one in some other field. I like to write and am currently working on AI subject short stories.

To anyone who pursues this topic – note that there are no easy solutions but I wish you good luck and good hunting and hope you will share your findings with me.

Update Jul 2: Wow, live and learn. There are two ways to mount the rotor in a gyroscope, with the rotor axis vertical or horizontal. There are pros and cons with both. Horizontal rotor axis: This allows a vehicle to make right and left turns without the rotor falling over. This is why the newly rebuilt GyroX car uses a horizontal axis even though the gyroscope was made by a boat gyrostabilizer company that normally uses a vertical axis rotor. The problem is that there is no natural precession to center the gyro in a zero degree balanced position. Also, this orientation requires more gimbal response time and power so your level of programming and mechanics goes up. Vertical rotor axis: This allows a vehicle to use natural precession to center the gyro in a zero degree balanced position, and less gimbal motor power required. Unfortunately, if the rotor is spinning clockwise, then the rotor will fall over in a right hand turn, though left turns are just fine.

Guess I will try using a horizontal rotor axis. I have already gotten this working but it loses it’s balance after a while and I am not sure why that is. I think I need to use a different program that does not rely on precession but rather just keeps adjusting the gimbal as close to the setpoint or zero position as possible. Update: I believe the rotor side must be heavier than the motor side as I discovered this when I built this side mounted gyroscope: https://www.instructables.com/id/Make-a-Self-Balancing-Gyroscope/ ) I am forgetting what I have already learned in the past. Will now modify version #4 to see if it balances better with a heavier rotor side (Note: heavier rotor side did not help.)

Update Jun 29: have mounted gyroscope on rotating bearing, hooked up a standard servo to rotate the bearing and tested it with my RC transmitter and it balances even if the bearing is rotated a few degrees in either direction. Will now set up the servo to synchronize with the steering servo and then remount the wheels to the vehicle frame and try it out to see if it helps on left forward turns. Will probably not help with rear right turns as it will turn the bearing in the wrong direction. That is why I think the GyroX car cannot make right rear turns because the gyroscope will fall over. Update: the bearing does not help at all.

Update Jun 27: Solved two previous problems. Just played with repositioning rotor on motor shaft until I got least amount of vibration. About the best I can do. Tried the dynamic balancing but it is dangerous and doesn’t work very well. #2 problem I wrote a subroutine to increase motor speed based on how fast the gimbal is turning. Work great and rotor is very stable at high rpm and always catches itself before it tumbles when disturbed. Will make a new video of that routine at work then install rotating gimbal.

Here is subroutine:

void doVelocityGimbal() {
// every so many milliseconds, check rotation velocity of gimbal, if fast then increase P, if slow then decrease P

if(velCurrentMillis – velPreviousMillis > 300) {
velElapsedTime = velCurrentMillis – velPreviousMillis;
velSpeed = (abs(gimbalAngle – velPrevGimbalAngle));
velSpeed = velSpeed / velElapsedTime;
if (velSpeed > .005) {velP = .2;} // fast so increase P to stop gimbal torque faster
else {velP = 0;} // slow so decreaase P to let gimbal stay in this area
Serial.print(“velElapsedTime= “);Serial.println(velElapsedTime);
Serial.print(“gimbalAngle= “);Serial.println(gimbalAngle);
Serial.print(“velPrevGimbalAngle= “);Serial.println(velPrevGimbalAngle);
Serial.print(“velSpeed = “);Serial.println(velSpeed);
Serial.print(“velP= “);Serial.println(velP);
velPreviousMillis = velCurrentMillis;
velPrevGimbalAngle = gimbalAngle;

Update Jun 18: got two problems I have to deal with now: #1. vibration of the rotor coming I think from the poor fit of the shaft adapter to the motor shaft – sometimes it is smooth and sometimes terrible vibration. Will have to try a dynamic balancing contraption that I will build using some small bearings and a couple of bottle tops. #2: the gyroscope goes out of balance after a while. I need to optimize the code but will fix the vibration problem first as it is so loud it vibrates the table and probably the neighbors ceiling. So this is going to take a while. No hurry I guess. Have to get both problems addressed before moving on to the rotating gimbal.

Update June 16: Above is video of new rotor. This will be version #3 of my self-balancing vehicle using a new 720 gram aluminum rotor. Much smoother operation. Need to modify program parameters to control it as the gimbal motor is just barely balancing it with the parameters used for a rotor half of this ones mass. Was able to use most of previous motor/gimbal mount.

Update June 14: Got my new rotor which is twice the thickness of the old rotor. Shaft hole is a tiny bit larger as the machinist could not promise 5.01 mm so it is probably 5.04 but better than the old 5.1 which was a really loose and sloppy fit. Very heavy, 700 grams. Balance point is at lower edge of rotor so have to build new gimbal mount. Going to take a while. Hope it will not wear out motor bearings too quickly. This rotor will produce a lot of torque and hopefully enough to allow me to use the gimbal rotating bearing to counteract left turn fall overs.

Got new rotor mounted and it balances pretty nicely. Next, test gimbal motor with it and modify code to account for more torque needed to control gimbal.

New self balancing gyroscope rotor

Update June 8: Haven’t done anything on this project until today: found a CNC machinest to make me a new rotor, 1000mm by 30mm, twice as heavy as my first one. With this one I should be able to put back in my rotating gimbal and test left turns. Cost 130rmb (about $20).

Update April 21: I have balanced the stripped down vehicle #2 (no steering or power wheels or batteries and weighs 1.5kg) at 1850 rpm. This is the minimum it will balance at so ratio of rotor to vehicle weight is: 24% which is what my fully equiped vehicle with a new 720gram rotor would be. I think it needs to be at that ratio to balance well like Schilkovski’s gyrocar. Also at version 2.1 of my book.

Update April 15: I stripped the vehicle down to just the gyroscope and gimbal controller and did an experiment where I started out at high CG of 13 cm from ground and then lowered by about 1 cm at a time down to 2 cm from ground. Definitely the gyro gets more stable the lower you go, especially when recovering from disturbances. It won’t balance at all at 13 or 14 cm. 2800 rpm throughout the experiment. See following video:

Component and wiring schematic:

Self Balancing Gyroscopic Vehicle Schematic

Update April 14: I stripped the steering and rear wheel off to get weight down to 1.5 kgs. Then I am using two chop sticks as the “wheels” to see the effect of different heights of CG from the ground. Started at 10cm off the ground and it would not balance at 2800rpm. Dropped to 9cm and it balances. The lower I go the better balance. Went down to 2cm and is treats disturbances better the lower it goes. So now need a new rotor before I can really do anything else.

At 1.5kgs it balances quite well and takes disturbances better. At 2.5kgs (with steering and power gear) disturbances cause it to become unstable. Really need a heavier rotor but cannot find a machinest here in china for the job. The only other alternative is to programmatically fix it.

Found C-1 patent that shows how to calculate how much torque required to return 30 degree angle to vertical. Will have to do that someday. https://patents.justia.com/patent/9273961#description

Update April 7: Was driving the gyrocar today and noticed, it falls on sharp left turns (gyroscope spins to the left) but ALSO falls making turns in reverse to the right. It is fine on forward right turns and backward left turns. Interesting but not surprising.

Also I think I am at the limit of balance and really need a larger rotor for more vehicle balance control. I can also try increasing program parameters for operation at high rpm to correct imbalance. Am trying to find a machinest for a new rotor with twice the mass (360 to 720 grams) but don’t know when that will happen so am trying to improve operation programmatically.

The nice thing is that I can now balance at 3000 rpm with the electronic gimbal controls but with the controls turned off, it will not balance at all. So I do have some control. Wish I could figure out a better algorithm than the sector programming I am currently using as it seems limiting.

Update April 4: I measured the minimum rpm to balance the vehicle and using gyroscopes.org/math online calculator, I determined the following:

360 gram rotor @ 2000 rpm = 580 grams of torque = 580g/2000g (wt of vehicle) = 29% (fails to balance)

360 gram rotor @ 2700rpm = 785 grams of torque = 785/2000g = 39% (balances)

So, it takes about at 40% ratio to balance this vehicle

Update Mar 28: The biggest problem with single rotor gyroscopic vehicles – turning. I wondered why the vehicle turns so nice and sharp to the right but will fall over if I turn very quickly to the left and I think I have figured it out. If you turn in the same direction as the precession ( which in this case is to the left since the gyroscope is spinning to the left or counter-clockwise) and you turn faster than the precession rate then the gyroscope will fall over. So, how to prevent that?

  1. You can prevent it by turning the entire gyroscope to the left at the same speed as you make the turn and then there will be no loss of precession. But this is a lot of work as it means you need another gimbal on the gyroscope and a control mechanism to turn the gimbal when steering to the left. I was going to do this one and had built a bearing into the gyroscope frame but the bearing weighed so much that my vehicle would not balance well. Will come back to this when I get a larger rotor.
  2. Another way to cope with it is to speed up the rpm of the gyroscope rotor. But that requires hooking your gyroscope rotor up to the microprocessor – a lot of work and it probably still wont work as you cannot increase the rpm very quickly.
  3. I’m not sure this way will help but you might tilt the rotor forward during a left turn to roll the vehicle to compensate for the turn. I will try this method first.

Update Mar 25: rebuilt gyro vehicle on new chassis but didn’t balance very well – oscillating terribly. So took off 400 gram circular bearing and still does not balance well. Two potential problems: 1. Using soft wheels that are slightly flat creates a side force. But don’t think that is it. 2. Lowering the axis of the gimbal too low robs the gyro of power for side to side torque. Like an inverted pendulum, it needs to be higher to exert less force to balance but not too high. Too low takes more torque to correct imbalance. Too low = less force required but higher speed. Too high = more force but less speed to correct. So need a balance between the two. Guess I have to raise the gyro until I can get a heavier gyro rotor. NOTE: took care of this by changing program parms.

On the note of the gyro material: steel is 2.5 times as dense as aluminum, and brass is 2 to 3 times as dense as aluminum. Aluminum is poor choice for rotor unless you don’t care how big the dimensions are.

Update Mar 20: Built new chassis and added gyro to it – worked but very rough balance. Then discovered that by lowering powerTime variable then it smooths out corrections fantastically. Went from value of 50 to 5. Now nice and smooth corrections. This makes sense as I lowered the CG of the gyro and therefore it requires less corrective force. At 50 I was over-correcting.

Calculated that 16% rotor to total weight is minimum I can balance with.

Todo: 1. add servo to move gimbal bearing.

2. add steering gear.

Update Mar 18: New frame with circular bearing so that I can turn the gyroscope when the vehicle turns.

New chassis incorporating rotating bearing for gyro to be used during turns of vehicle. Tried it and it would not balance well enough to test it because weight ballooned up to 3kgs and the 360g rotor was just too small to work well. So, waiting on new 720g rotor to continue this experiment.

Update Feb 28: put batteries and steering gear on new chassis, and had to retune parameters to get it balancing again. Then made following vide. Left and right turns. Now need to wait on getting final parts to build final version where I will turn the gyroscope with the steering to make turns better.

Update Feb 27: rebuilt the chassis to lower the center of mass closer to ground. It runs very smoothly even at low 3300 rpm. The lower the COM and lighter you can make the gyro vehicle has a huge effect on its performance.

Update Feb 26: build stilts to raise gyro platform from 10cm to floor, to 40cm to floor. Will not balance now even at 10,000 rpm. Makes sense as it acts like a long lever when falling over and this gives greater torque to gyroscope. Therefore it would require much larger rotor and/or higher rpm to counteract falling induced torque. So, the lower the CG of the gyro, the better. I plan to rebuild the chassis to lower the motor where it almost touches the ground – control should be even easier.

Update Feb 22: added a potentiometer to the steering servo to know when I turn so as to move balance point during turns to keep rotor balanced. First I added a wire to the steering servo potentiometer wiper and ran it and a ground to the Arduino but for some unknown reason it occassionally caused the servo to do erratic behavior so had to resort to an external pot that I stole from a standard servo and it works great. Now when it detects a turn I move the balance point forward or backward by 50 to keep the rotor balanced. Not perfect but much better than without it.

Next, take video of using the steering servo pot. Then a video of driving it with sharp left and right turns. Then try 540 sized motor to reduce voltage requirements. Will at some point need a 2000mah lipo as the 800mah runs dry in 5 minutes.

Self Balancing Gyrocar Steering Potentiometer Servo Linkage
potentiometer attached to steering servo

Update Feb 21: Added machine learning code to program to randomly choose some variable values in the program and measure the error over 100 cycles and keep the variable values that result in the least amount of error (balance point – actual gimbal angle). Works good.

Also added a wire to the steering servo to feed the angle of the servo to the Arduino and if a left or right turn then moves the balance point a corresponding amount to restore balance. Need to work some more on this as it rotor falls when quickly going back to neutral point.

Update Feb 17: Part 3.1 video: driving around. Good right turns, left turn is limited by mechanism that needs some work. Exponential moving average smoothing has really made the gyro stable. Replaced powered wheel AA batteries with 3s lipo battery and adjustable LM317 power supply. Now have lots of power. Also using two 3s lipos for Arduino Uno and to power gyroscope motor.

Update Feb 15: Plotting angle reading of gyro gimbal on serial plotter and it shows little spikes that I think may be due to sloppy gear linkage. Also used Exponential Moving Average smoothing routine that works well to get rid of spikes. Will make a new gear/motor mount at some point to see if spikes go away. Gyro balances nicely even at low 4000 rpm (6volts).

Plot should be sine wave but it goes up, comes back to center then down then back up. Not sure what is happening there but pretty erratic.

Got steering working by adding a standard servo. Will post video when I get vpn back.

Here is screen print of smoothing plot:

Using moving average smoothing of gyroscope potentiometer angle readings.

Update Feb 14,2020: Now balancing pretty well at 8000 to 10000 rpm. Even balances at 4000 rpm but wobbles quite a bit. Replaced wheels and front wheel is motorized and took video of going forward and backward. Unfortunately the AA batteries got depleted very quickly. So have ordered a rechargable lipo battery. Have added a standard servo to be used for steering.

Want to try a CG self-correcting routine to find optimum CG. Algorithm: for CG from 350 to 400; measure error for 1000 cycles; divide total result by 1000; keep lowest error.

Part 2 video: added powered wheel and rear wheel.

Video of first successful balancing (Part 1):


  • Arduino Uno
  • machined aluminum rotor , 360 grams, 10cm by 1.5cm (now 720 grams, 10 cm by 3 cm)
  • 550 12volt 18000(no load) dc motor
  • 370 motor for servo
  • P3022 non-contact potentiometer (required for no friction and precision values)
  • yellow geared 110 rpm motor for mobility
  • L298N motor driver (must have heatsink)
Posted in machine learning, Mechanical Gyroscopes, robots | Tagged , , | 7 Comments

Self Balancing Robot

I built this simple robot a few years back and it balanced fairly well but became a little erratic after awhile so decided to replace the mini L298 motor driver with a bigger L298 and it works a lot better. I haven’t implemented any directional control yet and may do that some day but am happy to just turn it on now and then and let it balance. It balances quite well without wandering too far and on a smooth and hard surface as well. I have even used a Neural Net algorithm to get it balancing which works quite well and does not require any tuning like the PID routine.

Here is a link to how to build it and the code for the neural net version.


I have the regular PID code available if anyone wishes to have it.

Posted in robots | Tagged , , , , | Leave a comment

Why a cross?

Jesus could have died many ways but why did God use the cross? Does the cross symbol have special meaning to God? Christ could have been beaten to death, killed with a sword, hung, burned on a stake, thrown to lions, starved to death, exiled to the desert, drowned, torn apart by horses, or a myriad of other gruesome methods. I think God used the cross because it would become arguably the most easily and recognizable symbol that followers of Christ could have. I can hardly recognize any other religious symbol other than the yin-yang of Daoism. Islam uses the star and moon which is really an ancient poly-theistic symbol – in other words, they don’t even have anything representative of Allah or Muhammad. The star of David is representative of the Jews but God did not choose it. And there aren’t any religious icons representative of a god’s love and sacrifice for men except for the cross. I grew up in a very fundamentalist group that looked down on wearing crosses but over the years I have come to see that wearing a cross is a statement to remind ourselves, and to tell others, who we are.

Posted in art work, artwork, Christianity, god, religion, sprituality, theology | Tagged , | Leave a comment

Jesus Painting

I don’t believe Jesus looked like the GQ boys that he is often portrayed. He probably had relatively short hair, a beard (especially after he came back from his ordeal in the desert unless he carried a shaver with him), and if prophecy carries any weight, he was not a beautiful man. My portrait is probably more accurate than most – not because of any inside knowledge but because of common-sense. Perhaps it is fortunate that we do not have any images of Christ in existence – it allows all of our internal pictures to be as accurate as the next. Christ is our savior – not a celebrity, after all a celebrity makes their living by being a fake.

This raises an interesting question: are the emotions invoked by a painting of Christ real? Is there any value to those emotions? After all, we cannot have a mental picture of God who is a spirit yet our emotional response to Him must be of some use. I don’t know. When I imagine a scene of Jesus from the Bible I think of him like Ted Neeley in Jesus Christ Superstar – and I hate that image because it is so inaccurate. Jesus was not a white, long-haired American. He was middle-Eastern Jewish, through and through.

I do believe that we will not be held accountable for our inaccurate portrayal of Jesus but I think I should at least modify our mental picture of him to something reasonable.

Posted in acrylic painting, art work, artwork, Christianity, god, Jesus Christ, Judaism, religion, son of God, sprituality, theology | Tagged | Leave a comment

Crucifixion 1 Painting

The Tomb Awaits

There is a myth that Jesus was crucified over the tomb of Adam and that his blood ran through a hole in the mountain into the tomb to cover the skull of Adam and thus rescue men from death. It is a nice story that, while it has no basis in fact, does prove true spiritually. My little painting shows the sun blackened with darkness and casting long shadows of death over the mountain. The tomb is covered by a stone that symbolizes the light of the Son soon to be shone upon the world. The doorway of life is soon to open for all men.

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